2006, VOLUME 7 #2. "TRANSPORT AND TELECOMMUNICATION". SCIENTIFIC & RESEARCH JOURNAL OF TTI, ISSN 1407-6160
The aim of the journal is to acquaint the readers with the national experience and research activities of various countries in the fields of transport and telematics as well as with the working materials of the European thematic networks and the research projects in this area. This special edition is devoted to the International Conference "Reliability and Statistics in Transportation and Communication" (October 13-14, 2005, Riga, Latvia). The edition includes texts of conference reports written by the authors in a special journal version. The authors have submitted the material in English or Russian in accordance with the official languages of the Conference. Therefore, for the convenience of readers the editorial board has divided the selected materials into three editions - English (Vol.7, No1, No2, 2006) and Russian (Vol.7, No3, 2006).
Journal in Journal: Proceedings
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- Programme of the Conference
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Session 5. Transport Logistics
This paper focuses on criteria that notify outsourcing logistics. Many authors usually talk about service outsourcing and its reasons and benefits as well, but if some functions of the service are not outsourced we really cannot entitle "outsourcing" for a whole service providing. In logistics activity if there are one or several functions outsourced not always it is possible to entitle "outsourcing logistics". In this paper outsourcing logistics criteria are described. Survey about traders in Lithuania of outsourcing logistics is presented as well. Attention is focused on dependents of outsourcing logistics on supply channels.
Keywords: outsourcing logistics, warehouses, outsourcing criteria
Current growth of freight flows between world economical regions stipulates increasing growth of the use of containers. They can be assumed as the most versatile type of loading units being in use all over the world. On the other hand, during the last few decades, all over the world evolved a lot of types of containers with different technological features. This in turn could become a significant problem for interoperability of different transport modes. Moreover, besides of differences in technical standards, the problem with organization of empty containers trips becomes more and more sharp.
Because of these circumstances, this paper presents analysis of current state of the world container market, description of problems related to empty container trips and overview of the latest technological developments of the containers in the EU.
Keywords: ISO containers, Intermodal Loading Units, empty trip operations
Freight transport is considered as an important condition for successful economies. A well-functioning and low-cost transport system facilitates international trade, which subsequently may increase economic efficiency through gains of trade and specialization. In addition, an efficient transport system allows firms to optimise their production and distribution processes.
Through these and another mechanisms freight transport, and transport in general, accommodates processes that brings positive welfare effects to society.
Keywords: freight transport, environment, transport system, economic problems
Performance measurement is the ongoing monitoring and reporting of program accomplishments, particularly progress towards preestablished goals. Program or agency management typically conducts it. Performance measures may address the type or level of program activities conducted (process), the direct products and services delivered by a program (outputs), and/or the results of those products and services (outcomes). A "program" may be any activity, project, function, or policy that has an identifiable purpose or set of objectives.
All high-performance organizations, whether public or private, are, and must be, interested in developing and deploying effective performance measurement and performance management systems, since it is only through such systems that they can remain high-performance organizations. The language of performance measurement includes terms such as effectiveness, efficiency, outcomes, outputs, productivity, quality, and inputs. In one sense or another, all of these terms represent measures of performance, but each measures different aspects of performance.
Article deals with analysing the following issue: 1. Definition of performance measurement. 2. Differences between transport performance measurement and transport performance management. 3. Performance management cycle. 4. Characteristics and types of transport performance indicators. 5. Performance indicators for road, maritime, rail and aviation safety. 6. Performance measurement process.
Keywords: performance measurement, performance management cycle, transport performance indicators, performance measurement process
Transportation of goods from the terminal to customers should be organized in such a way as to satisfy the demand of customers and to use vehicles efficiently. Freight flows distribution assignment model developed in the present investigation allows us to determine the capacity of a vehicle (i.e. its overall dimensions, carrying capacity, etc.), delivery time limits, time resources and overall costs. The methods of determining optimal lots of the transported goods as well as choosing the way and means of transportation are offered.
Keywords: freight terminal, vehicle, lot of goods
All governmental institutions wish to obtain value for money from investment expenditure into transport infrastructure and need a robust technique to make comparisons between alternative schemes. This enables the technique to be used in the preparation of scheme priority lists. In the preparation of the infrastructure capital expenditure section of the Transport Strategic Development Programme, the limit on expenditure prevents all schemes from starting together; consequently those with the best value for money are given greater priority. The Lithuania Ministry of Transport also uses this priority listing.
Cost/benefit analysis (CBA) compares the costs of road schemes with the benefits derived by infrastructure users and expresses those benefits in monetary terms. The use of CBA involves the same process as financial appraisal, whose main benefit is that it uses behavioural evaluation (i.e. it represents the real choice of consumers). The limitation of financial appraisal is that it does not cover all the costs and benefits of a scheme but is restricted to those financial effects on the producer. The major criticism of CBA is that it is not comprehensive ? yet financial appraisal is, if anything, even less so CBA itself is only a partial technique; the type used in Lithuania is restricted to measuring value for money over a limited range of road user benefits and excludes non-user or environmental benefits such as noise, pollution, vibration or community severance.
Keywords: transport, investments, cost/benefit, infrastructure
Passenger transportation by railway is fast, safe, convenient and affordable for people but it is usually not profitable for the state. Therefore, making passenger transportation profitable is a task of vital importance. Various calculations are used to optimise this process.
The paper considers the problems of economical passenger transportation which two models may describe: the first model is based on the assessment of income-expenses of separate services, while the second model is related to the assessment of expenses according to their types.
Keywords: income, expenses, model, transportation, railway
Nowadays, when market competition and tendencies of globalisation prevails, the concept of integrated logistics emerged. This concept is based on the consolidation of various actors involved in the system of goods delivery, in order to assure continuous goods flows from their origin to consumption places.
The same goal is expressed in the definition of intermodal transport. However, intermodal chains cannot be implemented without establishment of proper terminals that make possible coupling of different transport modes into single transportation chain.
This article examines significance of logistics centres operating on intermodal base in order to assure implementation of intermodal services on the territory of Lithuania.
Keywords: logistics centres, intermodal transport, multimodal networks
This article deals with the analysis of technological means application and modelling of processes activities in transport terminals.
The author describes the analysis of management by complex technical systems and estimates models' using in transport terminals.
An analysis procedure for the location of transport terminals that integrates facility costs, transportation costs and service responsiveness is developed in the paper. The procedure integrates ideas in queuing theory, discrete choice location analysis and multi-objective decision-making.
Keywords: transport terminals, technological process; using of mathematical models for transport terminals
Session 6. Reliability in Applications
To increase the diagnostic systems reliability in flight in the case of partial information loss the using of artificial intellect systems in the form of neural networks as on-board software is suggested. Neural networks have property of training in the case of information flow changes. In the paper diagnostic matrices developed for turboprop engine PW125B of Fokker-50, which is exploited in the "Riga" airport, are used as a training tool for neural networks. The examples of neural networks training based on data obtained with the help of failures simulation using table of influence coefficients and diagnostic matrices are considered.
Keywords: turboprop engine, flight information, thermo gas dynamic parameters, neural networks
The present study is concerned with simultaneous testing of two systems, referred to as "basic" (subscript b) and "new" (subscript n) respectively - with an exponential distribution of their times between failures (TBF's). A hypothesis is checked whereby the mean TBFn/MTBFb ratio equals a given value, versus the alternative whereby it is smaller than the latter. The need for comparison testing is due to the fact that the MTBF of the basic system is often unknown. Moreover, simultaneous testing permits elimination of uncontrollable factors.
The present study showed that this approach yields a binomial pattern for which a series of solutions is available via sequential testing. In this paper a recursive algorithm is presented for computation of the probability of a given combination of failure numbers for the two systems, such that the operational characteristic (OC) and that of the test duration can be determined quickly and exactly. This algorithm was applied to Wald's SPRT with a limit on the failure number. An optimisation program seeks the basic parameters for the test in question, ensuring given probabilities for errors of the first and second kinds and for the discrimination ratio.
Keywords: sequential testing, comparison testing, MTBF ratio
In the paper it is shown that the statistical data of throttling characteristics of turbofan by thrust parameter can be presented in the form of linear non-dimensional dependence that simplifies the generalization of such characteristics for various flight configuration. At that, as measuring (basic) thrust values it is suggested using values measured in similar power conditions of engine module by rather simple derived formulas. Thus, the method of the airborne thrust control of turbofan by the measured thermogas dynamic parameter in flight is considerably simplified.
Keywords: aircraft engine, turbofan, operational characteristics, thrust control, air pressure raise ratio
The article deals with the new adaptive optimal method of multidimensional spectral density measurement (for the multidimensional time series) and some applications to the technical diagnosis.
Keywords: adaptive method, spectral measurement, density, technical diagnosis
The paper describes a new method of reliability research of an automotive diesel engine on the laboratory test stand. The method includes engine start-up and momentary operation characterizing real conditions of operation. Described method is based on statistic forecasting of cylinder wear after a series of repeatable cycles comprising of engine start-up in stabilized temperature, short duration test run with no load, engine shut down and cooling down.
It was assumed that the wear of cylinder liners measured after a high number of start-up cycles are representative for typical conditions of vehicle use (operation). Developed method is characterized by simplified procedure and shortened time in comparison to standard reliability research.
Keywords: reliability research, diesel engine, engine start-up, test run
In recent years, fast development of automotive industry has been observed. The progress in the field of automotive electrotechnics plays an important part in this development. From year to year, the proportional share of electric elements in automotive vehicle equipment increases, and such a quantitative increase is accompanied by constant analysis of quality and reliability.
The development of reliability engineering proceeds at different pace depending on the field of technology it pertains to. Its fastest development is observed in car electronics, which is the subject matter of the present paper.
The purpose of the paper is to analyse the reliability of vehicle combustion engine electric equipment together with the structural analysis of engine reliability.
The present paper comprises:
The survey of engine electric and electronic systems
The structural analysis of engine reliability
Laboratory reliability tests - a passive experiment.
Keywords: ignition system, injection system, starting system reliability
Some completed model of the multi-site fatigue damage, constructed for a structure containing a series of the same type concentrators of stresses, located periodically along one straight line in more detail is considered. The model is constructed at the assumptions that the residual structural strength at presence of every possible damages uniquely is defined by the longest series from k the injured concentrators following one after another.
The considered calculated scheme well approaches for exposition of process of a modification of residual strength transversal rivet-joint of the hermetic fuselage periodically loaded with interior pressure.
Keywords: multi-site fatigue damage, rivet-joint
The purpose of the present report consists in studying an opportunity of use of devices for registration of complex signals in thin-walled details of structures. Lamb's wave properties were used for explanation of dynamic reaction of thin plate surface when in some place there is some source of impulse loading. The experiment on the study of some parameters of propagation of elastic waves in the plate from the Al-Cu aluminium alloy was carried out. Using the Lamb's waves' dispersion property, the formal simulation of waves interference was carried out. It was shown that dynamic reaction of thin plate surface could be explained as effect of several waves' interference.
Keywords: Lamb's waves, damage, simulation
Session 7. Modelling and Simulation
The main aim of the investigation is to develop approach to investigate hydrodynamic processes in the extinguishing device. The mathematical model of extinguishing device is presented, where the flow of fluid and gas and the interaction of liquid with the gas are taken into account. The flow of fluid in a hydraulic system is described by a system of equations of a hyperbolic type, which is solved by a characteristics method. An instance of the mathematical simulation of the activity-extinguishing device is shown. The dependence of recoil force is obtained.
Keywords: extinguishing device, gas, liquid, dynamics, recoil force, numerical methods
The main goal of the four-dimension spline-binarization method is an object bounds location determination. The method is based on the idea that intensity function inflection points are bound points between an object and background. Knowing where the background ends and the object starts and thus reducing the number of mistakes during binarization. It is assumed to use the cellular automata with the "soft" interaction for morphological operations for image processing. The rules of cellular automata for non-traditional "erosion" and "dilatation" implementations are established in the article. It gives the possibility to reduce the noise influence and to increase the quality of resulting black-white image.
Keywords: image processing, pattern recognition, binarization, cubic spline interpolation, morphological methods, cellular automata
Discussion Panel. Transport Development in the Baltic States: Transport Policy and Transport Research
All the EU countries are harmonized with the EU legislation and regulations, and there are some international non-EU and EU acts and treaties, which support multimodal transport, especially the reduction of limitations on intermodal transport that is a common feature between all the countries. However, without the provided infrastructure these reductions can turn out to be meaningless.
In order to facilitate international transport operations, the bilateral agreements with neighbouring States are of the utmost importance, especially if the state authorities want to influence the manner in which freight is transported to the hinterland in favour of combined transport. According to Directives 2001/13/ EB, 2001/14/ EB 2001/12 EC, railway undertakings within the EU shall be granted access on equitable conditions to the infrastructure in other Member States for the purpose of operating international combined transport services.
Lack of sufficient support for the development of intermodal/combined transport, both in terms of administrative and financial instruments. It is a gap between political supports for the principle of sustainable transport development with focus on shifting goods from road to rail-and real actions to provide it. International agreements and arrangements, laws must regulate intermodal transport and other legal acts of each state.
Keywords: intermodal transport, state support, legal regulation
The paper deals with the Logistics centre that sometimes is called the freight village and is realized as an "integrator" of various transport modes, able to promote intermodal transport. It is mainly an intermodal terminal, which is the primary component of the intermodal transport chain, constituting the node where the transhipment of goods from one mode to the other takes place.
Modern Logistics centre must be perceived as commercial enterprises offering comprehensive transport services to companies. The author points out the problem of investment, finances, revenues and other factors that provide successful operating of the Logistics centre.
Keywords: logistics centre, intermodal transport, transport node
The paper describes the problems of passenger transportation by local bus transport and possibilities to support rural public transport integrating it into the national and European passenger transportation networks. The emphasis is placed on Lithuanian local bus transport companies' capability to attract more passengers. The situation in the public transport market is analysed and major factors influencing the passenger flows on bus routes in Lithuania are described. A forecast for local passenger transport development is also presented.
Keywords: passenger transportation, local bus transport, public transport market, integration into a network, transportation forecasting
This paper presents development of advance technologies in Lithuanian customs. There are described general provisions, the vision, the mission of the customs of the Republic of Lithuania for 200552010. Development of technologies support modernization of customs activities is showed in the paper. In this article described management and evaluation of customs information system, information system of duties accounting and control, development of national control transit systems, customs declaration processing system, use of information system mutual with abroad.
Keywords: the business Strategy of the customs of the Lithuania, computerization, advance technologies, information system, customs declaration
Latvia is being a member of the European Union for 1,5 years. Favourable transportation time due to frontier control cancellation has gone up approximately by 15-20%. But side-by-side with obvious animation of activity in this branch there is a number of negative factors that badly affect the attractiveness of this kind of activity.
Due to the absence of strict state action and private initiative on logistic centre organization the largest part of transit cargoes to Russia has gone through Lithuania and Finland. It has affected the development of transport infrastructure of Latvia in general. The necessity of the development of the frontier infrastructure has arisen: construction of storage terminals, wide implementation of preliminary customs information system, development of international standard base for the realization of special programs.
Keywords: logistics centre, truck, transport infrastructure, customs information system
In this article authors try to define the main problems and perspectives of logistics training in Lithuania. Also they described main reasons in training process, methodology and training costs. Very important point is catchall view of personnel management organization to achieve situation when adult education and training at the working places in the enterprises are combined. Authors discuss the possibilities to be used at the working places in the logistics training process. In the logistics and "near-logistics" firms should be provided training and information methods, which are used for effectively, joined in the implementation of logistics training. These are very important points because adult's education has additional impact, i.e. social development of a person.
Keywords: logistics training, formal and non-formal education, education at the working place, training cost, personnel management